Learning Commons | Cardinal Cushing Library
HIST3121 Surviving Columbus: History of Native Americans, 1492-1992 - Marion

Article Databases
   Restricted Resource = Emmanuel Faculty, Staff & Students only

Article Databases: Ranked by Relevance
  • JSTOR Restricted Resource
    A total of more than 900 full-text scholarly journal titles in an online archive beginning with the first issue of each title. The archive includes nine JSTOR Arts and Sciences Collections. In JSTOR, there is usually a time lag in full-text content. Use JSTOR in conjunction with our current online databases and print holdings. (See also Example of a Search in JSTOR )
  • Project MUSE® Restricted Resource
    Offers over 400 quality journal titles from nearly 100 not-for-profit publishers. Project MUSE® covers the fields of literature and criticism, history, the visual and performing arts, cultural studies, education, political science, gender studies, economics, and many others.
  • Ebsco search for History Restricted Resource
    Search across the following databases:
    • Academic Search Premier
    • Humanities International Complete
      Features are literary critique content and inclusion of original works of poetry, short fiction, photography, illustrations, and artwork. This database was originally funded by a gift from the Emmanuel College Class of 2006.
    • Military & Government Collection
      Designed to offer current news pertaining to all branches of the military and government, this database offers a thorough collection of periodicals, academic journals, and other content pertinent to the increasing needs of those sites. It provides cover-to-cover full text for nearly 300 journals and periodicals and indexing and abstracts for nearly 400 titles.
  • Gale Academic OneFile (1980 - current) Restricted Resource
  • HeinOnline Restricted Resource
    Contains more than 150 million pages and 160,000 titles of legal history and government documents in a fully searchable, image-based format.
Additionally, search in Google Scholar .
  • Search for the journal title using the  A-Z Journals by Title list to verify the journals peer-reviewed status.
Video Databases
  • American History in Video Restricted Resource
    Provides the largest and richest collection of video available online for the study of American history, with 2,000 hours and more than 5,000 titles on completion.
  • Kanopy (Emmanuel users) Restricted Resource
    Kanopy is a streaming video resource with a board collection of over 26,000 films on every subject imaginable and from leading producers such as Criterion Collection, The Great Courses, New Day Films, HBO California Newsreel, Kino Lorber, PBS, BBC, First Run Features, The Video Project, Documentary Education Resources. Kanopy’s website makes it easy to watch, share and discuss films across campus.
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Primary Documents
See the Primary Documents research guide for further resources.

American History 1493-1945 Restricted Resource
Module 1: Settlement, Commerce, Revolution and Reform: 1493-1859 Sources from the Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History, New York. Contains books, diaries, correspondence, newspapers, photographs, military documents, pamphlets, broadsides and other ephemera. “The majority of the collection is unique manuscript. It is an extensive resource for scholars, educators and students and is considered one of the finest archives for material on the revolutionary, early national, antebellum and civil war eras.”  Module 2: Civil War, Reconstruction and the Modern Era: 1860-1945 Includes documents on slavery, the Civil War, and secession.

American Indian Histories and Cultures Restricted Resource
Contains manuscripts, artwork, photographs, rare printed books, and maps related to the historical and personal stories of the colonization of the Americas from early contacts between European settlers and American Indians  to the modern era, and “told against the backdrop of the 19th century expansion into the ‘Western Frontier’ right through to the civil rights movement of the mid-twentieth century.” Sources from the Edward E. Ayer Collection at The Newberry Library, Chicago.

Massachusetts Historical Society
See Photographing the American Indian: Portraits of Native Americans, 1860-1913, from the collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society.

National Archives and Records Administration (NARA)
See Indians/Native Americans.
Identifying Primary Sources
  • See the tutorial Primary vs. Secondary Sources (Twin Cities Library, St. Mary's University of Minnesota) for a definition and examples of Primary Sources.
  • Photogrammar
    170,000 iconic pictures of America in the era of the Great Depression and WWII (1935-1945) housed in the Library of Congress, released by Yale and funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities.  Searchable by County map.
Historical Maps
Current and Peer Reviewed Journals
Restricted Resource = Emmanuel Faculty, Staff & Students only
  • Archaeology of Eastern North America Restricted Resource
    "Presents articles primarily on the archaeology of Native American inhabitants and cultures of eastern North America (from Ohio eastward, including Canadian provinces)."
  • American Indian and Alaska Native Mental Health Research Restricted Resource
    "Exclusively about American Indian & Alaska Native health. A forum for work on the cause, assessment, epidemiology, treatment, & prevention of alcohol, drug, & mental health disorders & related phenomena among American Indians & Alaska Natives."
  • The American Indian Quarterly Restricted Resource
    "A journal presenting interdisciplinary studies in anthropology, history, literature, and folklore for the academic audience."
  • Diaspora, Indigenous, and Minority Education Restricted Resource
    "Focuses on critical discourse and research in diaspora, indigenous, and minority education; is dedicated to researching cultural sustainability in a world increasingly consolidating under national, transnational, and global organizations."
  • International Journal of Indigenous Health Restricted Resource
    "The journal was established to advance knowledge and understanding to improve Indigenous health."
  • International Indigenous Policy Journal Restricted Resource
    "Covers research addressing issues pertaining to indigenous peoples throughout the world."
  • Journal of American Indian Education Restricted Resource
    "Covers educational issues for American Indians, First Nations, Native Hawaiian, Maori, Indigenous Peoples of Latin American and other Native peoples of the world."
  • Journal of the Native American and Indigenous Studies Association (NAIS) Restricted Resource
    "This journal provides a dynamic intellectual space for the communication and dissemination of excellent scholarship related to Indigenous Studies."
  • The Western Historical Quarterly Restricted Resource
    Presents original articles dealing with the North American West; expansion & colonization, indigenous histories, regional studies (including western Canada, northern Mexico, Alaska & Hawaii), and transnational comparative, and borderland histories.
  • Wicazo Sa Review Restricted Resource
    "Publishes the scholarship useful to the development of the discipline of Native American studies."
  • Whispering Wind Restricted Resource
    "Magazine covering historical events, crafts, and material culture of the American Indian."
Current Newspapers
Restricted Resource = Emmanuel Faculty, Staff & Students only
Historical Newspapers
Restricted Resource = Emmanuel Faculty, Staff & Students only

ProQuest Historical Newspapers Restricted Resource
This collection of historical newspapers includes: The Hartford Courant (1764-1993); The New York Times (1851-2015); The New York Tribune (1841-1922); The Wall Street Journal (1889-2002); The Washington Post (1877-2002)

Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers Unrestricted Resource
Options include All Digitized Newspaper Pages from 1789 to 1963 and U.S. Newspaper Directory, 1690 - Present.  Library of Congress

Historical Newspapers Online Unrestricted Resource

What Are Archives

An archive is a receiving institution which means that it acquires the inactive records of its parent organization and is a repository for historical information on that organization. Archives, in addition to maintaining the records of its parent organization, may collect documents related to a theme or area of interest (e.g. history of a region, theater or religion) and serve as the place where research can be done to learn more about the organization or its affiliated collections.
Sr. Clare Francis, Director of the Library, 1963-1964
A library is a collecting institution meaning it gathers published material from a variety of places to serve the informational needs of its patrons. Libraries do not only rely upon information from their parent organization.

In an archive, information is organized according to collections that follow the principle of original order; that is, a collection should be organized according to how the creator or collecting entity arranged the documents in the collection. This is done because, while documents provide the content of a collection, the principle of original order provides the context for a collection. If there is no original order to a collection, then the archivists will organize the collection according to a method that makes the most sense. This method could be by document type, alphabetically or chronologically.  

A finding aid is a document that provides a description of a collection and its contents. It includes:
  1. collection size
  2. content list
  3. historical background 
  4. any restrictions that may exist for the collection
Types of Archives
  1. College Archives
  2. Government Archives
  3. Business Archives
  4. Museums
  5. Historical Societies
Steps to doing Research in an Archive
The steps below are designed to aid in the research process by providing a method through which information can be found and studied.
  1. Conduct background research on the topic: To gain a sense of the names, places and dates related to the event or person(s) under study. Secondary sources can also be used to identify primary sources.
  2. Determine which archives are most likely to contain relevant information. This involves:Emmanuel Students, 1960-1961
    • Viewing the websites and databases of potential archives. Visit the Search for Primary Documents Page for suggested sources.
    • Reviewing the finding aids of relevant collections.
    • Contacting the archive's staff for further information.
  3.  Plan a visit to the archive. This involves:
    • Reviewing the archive's website to determine when the archive is open.
    • Alerting the staff when you are coming and informing them of the collection you wish to view. Some collections are stored off site and it may take several days for the collection to arrive at the archives for your viewing. Also ascertain if the collection you want to view is on display or is on loan to another institution. Contact the archivist if you are unable to keep your appointment.
    • Determining if there is a limit on the amount of materials you can view at once, as this could affect the amount of time you need for your research.
    • You may want to schedule time for unexpected circumstances.
  4. Guidelines when visiting archives: 
    • Registration: Researchers are asked to complete application forms that aid the archives in learning about patrons and their research topics. Photo ID may be required.
    • Storage of coats and bags:  If a public coat rack or closet is all that is available (versus individual lockers) be sure to place all valuables in your pocket(s). The use of laptops, tablets and cameras is at the discretion of the archives.
    • No food or drink: This is a prohibition used by archives to ensure documents are not damaged from accidential spills. It also discourages bugs and rodents from infesting the archives.
    • Use of pencil: Archivists require pencil when working with documents in case accidental marks are made on primary sources.
    • Request Forms: These forms are used to request material in an archives because (unlike in most libraries) patrons will not be allowed into the archival stacks. These forms will help the archivists retrieve the correct collection and box(s). 
    • Maintain order and handle carefully: Archivists ask that materials are kept in the order in which they are present in the containers as this helps preserve the content and context of the archival materials. In addition, archives request that researchers carefully handle the documents that they view as this will aid in the preservation of the documents for future users.
  5. When viewing archival materials relevant to the topic:
    • Read the materials and take notes on important concepts, viewpoints and ideas. If allowed, transcribe or photograph the document(s) if you wish. Interpret the information you find within the context of your background research.
    • Organize your notes and be sure to write down the collection name, box and folder numbers of the documents you review. You may need to cite and/or refer to the documents at a later date.
Types of Sources: Primary
Primary Sources

Primary sources are useful because they offer an original viewpoint on an event from a person who was there. Primary sources offer insight into why events occurred or why a person made a particular decision at a given point in time. Be aware that primary sources can be prone to biases or present inaccurate information.

  1. NewspapersEpilogue, 1948
  2. Newsreels
  3. Oral Histories
  4. Maps
  5. Blueprints
  6. Autobiographies
  7. Records of Court Proceedings
  8. Speeches
  9. Church Records
  10. Business Records
  11. Correspondences
  12. Interviews
  13. Websites (in some cases)
  14. Artifacts
  15. Scholarly Journal Articles (in some cases)
Types of Sources: Secondary
Secondary Sources

Secondary sources, based on primary sources, are useful because they expose the researcher to other people's viewpoints on a given event or person. They also provide the researcher with the names, dates and events related to a topic.

  1. Monographs
  2. Scholarly Journal Articles (in some cases)
  3. Second-Hand Accounts of an Event
  4. Biographies
  5. Documentaries
  6. Websites (in some cases)
Selected Websites

Additional Government Resources
General Resources
  • Best of History on the Web
    Directory of rated web sites accessed by category or through search option. The Center for Teaching History with Technology.
  • The Complete Works of Charles Darwin Online
    Explore Complete Publications, Private Papers & Manuscripts, and Supplementary Works, which includes a bibliography of works cited. Darwin Online project  was founded by Dr. John van Wyhe, University of Cambridge.
  • History World
    World history resource that includes historical narratives, timelines, and more. Conceived and written by Bamber Gascoigne and updated regularly.
  • Map History / History of Cartography
    Selected links to information about and images of early maps. Source of the linked site given. Sections for both printed and online literature on the subject. Regularly updated. Part of the World Wide Web Virtual Library project. Maintained by Tony Campbell, Map Librarian (retired), British Library, London.
  • New York State Archives: Digital Collections
    Collections and images from the New York State Archives, NYS Museum, NYS Library.
  • American Indian Business Leaders
    American Indian Business Leaders is the "only American Indian non-profit organization solely dedicated to empowering business students in the United States." They aim to increase and empower the presence of Native Americans in business.
  • American Indian College Fund
    According to the American Indian College Fund, only 13.8% of Native Americans have a college degree. They have provided over $170 million dollars to native students to help them enter and stay in school.
  • Center for Native American Youth
    "The Center for Native American Youth is a national advocacy organization working to improve the health, safety, and overall well-being of Native American youth ages 24 and under."
  • First Nations Development Institute
    The First Nations Development Institute invests in and creates "innovative institutions and models that strengthen asset control and support economic development for American Indian people and their communities."
  • Intertribal Agriculture Council
    Founded in 1987 to "pursue and promote the conservation, development and use of our agricultural resources for the betterment of our people."
  • National Congress of American Indians
    "NCAI, a non-profit organization, advocates for a bright future for generations to come by taking the lead to gain consensus on a constructive and promising vision for Indian Country. The organization’s policy issues and initiatives are driven by the consensus of our diverse membership, which consists of American Indian and Alaska Native tribal governments, tribal citizens, individuals, and Native and non-Native organizations."
  • National Indian Justice Center
    Established in 1983, the National Indian Justice Center designs and delivers "legal education, research, and technical assistance programs which seek to improve the quality of life for Native communities and the administration of justice in Indian country."
  • National Native American Bar Association
    The National Native American Bar Association is dedicated to the advancement of justice for Native American communities, and "of protecting the governmental sovereignty of the more than 560 independent Native American Tribal governments in the United States."
  • Native American Rights Fund
    The Native American Rights Fund (NARF) provides "legal assistance to Indian tribes, organizations, and individuals nationwide who may have otherwise gone without adequate representation."
  • Women Empowering Women for Indian Nations
    "Women Empowering Women for Indian Nations (WEWIN) exists to provide Native women with the knowledge, support, and resources necessary to achieve success in their personal and professional lives."
  • Massachusetts Center for Native American Awareness
    The MCNAA's goal is to "provide assistance, support and opportunities to Native American residents; and to increase public understanding and awareness about Native American rights, culture and history."
  • Massachusetts' Commission on Indian Affairs (MCIA)
    Indian Affairs fundamental role is to assist Native American individuals, tribes and organizations in their relationship with state and local government agencies and to advise the Commonwealth in matters pertaining to Native Americans.
  • North American Indian Center of Boston
    Empowering and investing in the Native American community of Massachusetts for over 45 years.
  • Native American LifeLines
    The Mission of Native American LifeLines is to promote health and social resiliency within Urban American Indian communities.
Chicago Style of Citations