Learning Commons | Cardinal Cushing Library
HIST2207 Slavery in Global History - Fortin

Article Databases
   Restricted Resource = Emmanuel Faculty, Staff & Students only

  • JSTOR Restricted Resource
    A total of more than 900 full-text scholarly journal titles in an online archive beginning with the first issue of each title. The archive includes nine JSTOR Arts and Sciences Collections. In JSTOR, there is usually a time lag in full-text content. Use JSTOR in conjunction with our current online databases and print holdings. (See also Example of a Search in JSTOR )
  • Project MUSE® Restricted Resource
    Offers over 400 quality journal titles from nearly 100 not-for-profit publishers. Project MUSE® covers the fields of literature and criticism, history, the visual and performing arts, cultural studies, education, political science, gender studies, economics, and many others.
  • Ebsco search for History Restricted Resource
    Search across the following databases:
    • Academic Search Premier
    • Humanities International Complete
      Features are literary critique content and inclusion of original works of poetry, short fiction, photography, illustrations, and artwork. This database was originally funded by a gift from the Emmanuel College Class of 2006.
    • Military & Government Collection
      Designed to offer current news pertaining to all branches of the military and government, this database offers a thorough collection of periodicals, academic journals, and other content pertinent to the increasing needs of those sites. It provides cover-to-cover full text for nearly 300 journals and periodicals and indexing and abstracts for nearly 400 titles.
  • Gale Academic OneFile (1980 - current) Restricted Resource
  • HeinOnline Restricted Resource
    Contains more than 150 million pages and 160,000 titles of legal history and government documents in a fully searchable, image-based format.
  • The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database Unrestricted Resource
    Explore the Voyages Database, Assessing the Slave Trade interactive estimates page, and the African Names Database. Sponsored by the National Endowment for the Humanities, W.E.B. Du Bois Institute (Harvard University), and Emory University.

additional search in Google Scholar .

  • Search for the journal title using the  A-Z Journals by Title list to verify the journals peer-reviewed status.
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Search for Books (Print and E-Books)
Video Databases
  • American History in Video Restricted Resource
    Provides the largest and richest collection of video available online for the study of American history, with 2,000 hours and more than 5,000 titles on completion.
  • Kanopy (Emmanuel users) Restricted Resource : A streaming video resource with a broad collection of over 26,000 films.
Evaluating Sources

Additional Resources
Researching Historiographies
General Information about Historiography General Considerations
  • Who are the major historians for your topic?
  • How can these historians be organized into schools of approach or methodology?
  • How has the historiography of your topic evolved over time?
  • How did the various historians explore the topic through a political, social, or economic lens?
Example searches:
  • historiography "French Revolution"
  • historians "Mao Zedong"

Example searches:
  • historiography and "Australia"
  • historians and "Slave Tade"
  • “historiographical-evolution” and "Aztecs"
  • Additionally, conduct searches on the topic (e.g., "French Revolution") and note who is cited in the bibliography.
Recommended databases:
Researching Historians
Do they have websites?
  • Often, scholars will post their Curriculum Vitae online, including their list of publications.
  • Are they associated with a university or other organizations?
Search for the authors and their articles/books on Google Scholar Restricted Resource .
  • On the results page, if an author's name is hyperlinked, click on it to see the author's page.
  • For specific books or articles, click the Cited by hyperlink to view books/articles that have cited the work.
Conduct author searches in history databases, such as JSTOR .

Additionally, explore the faculty of universities specializing in the field that you are research.
Primary Documents/Images
Restricted Resource = Emmanuel Faculty, Staff & Students only

American History 1493-1945 Restricted Resource
Module 1: Settlement, Commerce, Revolution and Reform: 1493-1859 Sources from the Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History, New York. Contains books, diaries, correspondence, newspapers, photographs, military documents, pamphlets, broadsides and other ephemera. “The majority of the collection is unique manuscript. It is an extensive resource for scholars, educators and students and is considered one of the finest archives for material on the revolutionary, early national, antebellum and civil war eras.”  Module 2: Civil War, Reconstruction and the Modern Era: 1860-1945 Includes documents on slavery, the Civil War, and secession.

American Indian Histories and Cultures Restricted Resource
Contains manuscripts, artwork, photographs, rare printed books, and maps related to the historical and personal stories of the colonization of the Americas from early contacts between European settlers and American Indians  to the modern era, and “told against the backdrop of the 19th century expansion into the ‘Western Frontier’ right through to the civil rights movement of the mid-twentieth century.” Sources from the Edward E. Ayer Collection at The Newberry Library, Chicago.

Amistad Research Center Digital Projects
"The Amistad Research Center is committed to collecting, preserving, and providing open access to original materials that reference the social and cultural importance of America's ethnic and racial history, the African Diaspora, human relations, and civil rights."

Archives of American Art
Includes all of the Archives of American Art records. Provides access to primary sources that document American visual arts. Sources from the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.

Brown Digital Repository
Provides access to primary resources produced via the scholarly, instructional, research, and administrative activities at Brown. Providence, RI.

"University of California's free public gateway"" to primary documents ""selected from the libraries and museums of the UC campuses" and their partners statewide.

Center for Human Rights Documentation and Research
"[T]he official repository for the archives of major human rights organizations such as Amnesty International USA, the Committee of Concerned Scientists,  Human Rights First, and Human Rights Watch." Columbia University Libraries.

Civil War Diaries and Letters
 A collection of diaries and letters from Auburn University, covering both sides of the war; each item is scanned and transcribed.

Credo, Special Collections and University Archives
Collections include the "Horace Mann Bond Papers" and "W. E. B. Du Bois Papers."  University of Massachusetts, Amherst.

Digital Collections, Columbia University Library
Offers access to “photographs, posters, drawings, objects, ephemera, and manuscripts as well as other archival material from Columbia's rare and special collections.” New York, NY.

Digital Collections, Duke University Libraries
The digital collections of Duke University Libraries provides access to a growing collection of their archival materials, including both Full Text and Images.

Digital Collections, Harvard University
Access botanical studies primary resource materials such as, specimen databases, images, and other links.

Digital Collections, University of Washington Libraries
Offers access primary source materials associated with the arts and humanities. Including access to digital resources associated with the Labor Archives of Washington and the Mountains and Mountaineering in the Pacific Northwest collection. Seattle, WA.

Digital Collections, Yale University Library
Contains a wide variety of digital primary source materials, including the Henry Kissinger Papers, the Cushing/Whitney Medical Library Digital Collections, and the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library Digital Collections. New Haven, CT.

Digital Collections, UC Berkeley Library
Includes much of US Berkeley Library’s archival materials, as well as “born digital” materials, hosted through Calisphere.

ULS Digital Collections
An array of primary source materials covering both the humanities and the sciences from the University Library System (ULS), University of Pittsburgh.

Early Americas Digital Archive
Gateway to primary source material “written in or about the Americas from 1492 to approximately 1820.” Maryland Institute for Technology in the Humanities (MITH), University of Maryland, College Park.

Eighteenth Century Collections Online Restricted Resource
Full-text, searchable primary documents from the 18th century; over 180,000 titles: books, pamphlets, essays, broadsides and other material in all subject areas, published in the UK and elsewhere. Includes an image gallery.

First World War Digital Poetry Archive
"An online repository of over 7000 items of text, images, audio, and video for teaching, learning, and research. The heart of the archive consists of collections of highly valued primary material from major poets of the period, including Wilfred Owen, Isaac Rosenberg, Robert Graves, Vera Brittain, and Edward Thomas." University of Oxford.

Internet Archive: University of Massachusetts Amherst Libraries
Collection of books digitized by the Internet Archive for UMass, Amherst.  Primary documents include vital records, historical directories, gazetteers, and histories of Massachusetts towns and regions.

Library of Congress
Explore the Digital collections.

Massachusetts Digital Commonwealth
"Digital Commonwealth is a Web portal and fee-based repository service for online cultural heritage materials held by Massachusetts libraries, museums, historical societies, and archives."

National Archives and Records Administration (NARA)
U.S. Federal Government website providing access to Federal Government Records and more. Select the Research Our Records option at the top left and, then, Research a Specific Topic.

New York State Archives: Digital Collections
Collections and images from the New York State Archives, NYS Museum, NYS Library.

New York Public Library Digital Collections
180,000 digitized photos, postcards, maps, and other images freely available online and in the public domain.   The NYPL has made the decision to treat these public-domain images as public intellectual property that can be reused by members of the public in any way they want.  (For the New York Public Library’s Press Release on promoting transformative use of their materials, click here.) 

The Newberry Publications and Digital Resources
The Newberry is a "world-renowned independent research library in Chicago."

Nineteenth Century Collections: Women Restricted Resource
Nineteenth Century Collections Online - Women: Transnational Networks provides primary source documents—serials, books, manuscripts, diaries, reports, and visuals focusing on issues at the intersection of gender and class from the late-eighteenth century to the era of suffrage in the early-twentieth century, all through a transnational perspective. The collection draws from the Library of Congress, the London School of Economics and Political Science Library, and the Library of the Society of Friends.

Princeton University Digital Library
Princeton, NJ.

Rare Books & Manuscripts Department Collection
Boston Public Library.

Library Catalog Digital Collections
Cornell University Library

September 11 Digital Archive
Roy Rosenzweig Center for History and New Media, George Mason University and American Social History Project, City University of New York Graduate Center.

Slavery in America and the World: History, Culture & Law Restricted Resource
This HeinOnline collection brings together, for the first time, all essential legal materials on slavery in the United States and the English-speaking world.

State Library of Massachusetts Digital Collections
The State Library of Massachusetts supports the research and information needs of government, libraries, and people through innovative services and access to a comprehensive repository of state documents and other historical items.

Vietnam Center and Archive
"[C]ollects and preserves the documentary record of the Vietnam War, and supports and encourages research and education regarding all aspects of the American Vietnam Experience." Texas Tech University.
Identifying Primary Sources
  • See the tutorial Primary vs. Secondary Sources (Twin Cities Library, St. Mary's University of Minnesota) for a definition and examples of Primary Sources.
Historical Maps
  • Photogrammar
    170,000 iconic pictures of America in the era of the Great Depression and WWII (1935-1945) housed in the Library of Congress, released by Yale and funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities.  Searchable by County map.
Historical Newspapers
Restricted Resource = Emmanuel Faculty, Staff & Students only 
Current Newspapers
Restricted Resource = Emmanuel Faculty, Staff & Students only
  • Arts & Letters Daily: Newspapers
    A Service of the Chronicle of Higher Education. Accesses 25 newspapers worldwide. "New material is added to Arts & Letters Daily six days a week."
  • The Curse of Ham by David Goldenberg Restricted Resource
    "How old is prejudice against black people? Were the racist attitudes that fueled the Atlantic slave trade firmly in place 700 years before the European discovery of sub-Saharan Africa? In this groundbreaking book, David Goldenberg seeks to discover how dark-skinned peoples, especially black Africans, were portrayed in the Bible and by those who interpreted the Bible--Jews, Christians, and Muslims. Unprecedented in rigor and breadth, his investigation covers a 1,500-year period, from ancient Israel (around 800 B.C.E.) to the eighth century C.E., after the birth of Islam"
  • Many Thousands Gone by Ira Berlin Restricted Resource
    "Many Thousands Gone traces the evolution of black society from the first arrivals in the early seventeenth century through the Revolution."
  • Atlas of Slavery by James Walvin Restricted Resource
    "Slavery transformed Africa, Europe and the Americas and hugely-enhanced the well-being of the West but the subject of slavery can be hard to understand because of its huge geographic and chronological span. This book uses a unique atlas format to present the story of slavery, explaining its historical importance and making this complex story and its geographical setting easy to understand."
  • Disposable People : New Slavery in the Global Economy by Kevin Bales Restricted Resource
    "Kevin Bales's disturbing story of slavery today reaches from brick kilns in Pakistan and brothels in Thailand to the offices of multinational corporations. His investigation of conditions in Mauritania, Brazil, Thailand, Pakistan, and India reveals the tragic emergence of a "new slavery," one intricately linked to the global economy."
Academic Resources
  • The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database
    Explore the Voyages Database, Assessing the Slave Trade interactive estimates page, and the African Names Database. Sponsored by the National Endowment for the Humanities, W.E.B. Du Bois Institute (Harvard University), and Emory University.
  • Anti-Slavery Collection, 1725-1911 (UMass Amherst Special Collections and University Archives)
    "The Antislavery Collection contains several hundred printed pamphlets and books pertaining to slavery and antislavery in New England, 1725-1911. The holdings include speeches, sermons, proceedings and other publications of organizations such as the American Anti-Slavery Society and the American Colonization Society, and a small number of pro-slavery tracts."
  • Digital Library on American Slavery (UNC Greensboro)
    "The Digital Library on American Slavery is an expanding resource compiling various independent online collections focused upon race and slavery in the American South, made searchable through a single, simple interface."
Web Resources
  • The Global Slavery Index
    "The 2018 Global Slavery Index provides a country by country ranking of the number of people in modern slavery, as well as an analysis of the actions governments are taking to respond, and the factors that make people vulnerable."
  • International Justice Mission
    An international organization that works to end slavery on a global scale.
  • National Human Trafficking Hotline
    In addition to serving as a hotline for victims of human trafficking, the National Human Trafficking Hotline also has a wide array of resources and statistics related to human trafficking. 
  • 1619 Project: New York Times Magazine
    New York Times Magazine special issue re-examing slavery in the United States
Blog Project
Students will keep a blog detailing their encounters with the legacy of slavery and the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade. At least once per week (or more often), students will update their blog, and read and engage with their peers’ blogs to create a large, living and organic record of the influence of the slavery and the slave trade in contemporary America.

Best Practices Resources
Final Paper

This is a 10-pages of original research on a topic of your choice. There is a separate handout with ALL relevant guidelines to follow – PLEASE FOLLOW THEM CLOSELY.

Absolutely No Exceptions or Extensions.

Important Questions to Consider for your Seminar Paper:
  1. Topic: A successful topic should pose an interesting question that can be answered using available evidence.
  2. Title: A good title should excite the reader's interest, while summarizing the subject in a few key words.
  3. Introduction/Thesis: The introduction should interest the reader and clarify the purpose of the paper. An answerable question should be clearly stated (and it doesn’t necessarily need to be in the form of a question) with the rest of the paragraph articulating the argument you will construct to answer that question.
  4. Historiography: A worthwhile essay is part of a larger scholarly conversation. The author should define the scholarly discussion to which they contribute, making it clear what others have said on the subject, clearly stating what their position is and how this expands the larger debate? I know you think you are “just an undergrad” but you do have something to contribute to the debate surrounding your topic. Don’t be afraid to believe in your intellectual capabilities!
  5. Primary Sources: The main purpose of this paper is for you to construct an argument driven by primary sources. How well does the thesis satisfy this requirement?
  6. Analysis: What kinds of evidence does the author rely on? Is the evidence used sufficient to satisfy the author's goals? How is the evidence used in support of the argument?
  7. Organization: Clear, coherent and logical organization is key to ensuring the reader understands your argument. Is your thesis well organized? Is your argument made clearer by the way you organize the information/data?
  8. Formatting: Do your footnotes follow The Chicago Manual of Style format? Are your footnotes complete? Do your footnotes to convey useful information that support the main argument
Chicago Style of Citations